The Basic Sharingan
Before the start I want to clarify that being born an Uchiha doesn’t automatically grant you the sharingan later in life. It only manifest in certain individuals, and even then that individual must undergo an intense emotional experience. The experience can be negative such as when Madara lost his younger brother, or positive like when Obito felt the strong desire to protect Kakashi. The premature and fully matured sharingan definitely have their perks, but they come with plenty of weakness and drawbacks that can be exploited. The premature sharingan has all the same abilities a fully matured sharingan has just not the same proficiency. It’s two main abilities include “the Eye of Insight” and “the Eye of Hypnotism”.
“The Eye of Insight” grants the user incredible clarity, making them able to see people chakra, predict an opponent’s movements, and even copy their jutsu. This technique isn’t perfect however. The Eye of sight can’t see chakra to the degree the Byakugan can, and it doesn’t matter if you can predict where your enemy is going to hit you if you can’t react fast enough to block or dodge. And while you are able to copy most jutsus if you can’t perform another clan’s Kekkei Genkai, or use a change in chakra nature you don’t posses.
First Evolution: Mangekyou Sharingan
To awaken the Mangekyo Sharingan the ninja must go through an extremely traumatic event, almost always involving the loss of someone very precious to them. In fact this is where the Uchiha Curse of Hatred comes from. Many Uchiha killed the ones they loved most in order to obtain the power of the Mangekyo Sharingan. Each ninja’s Mangekyo Sharingan is unique in its appearance and varies in ability, and if a user is able to unlock the Mangekyo Sharingan in both eyes he is able to wield the Susanoo, a massive humanoid deity made from the user’s chakra.
The abilities themselves vary greatly and you can read more about them individually here. From Itachi’s Tsukuyomi, a genjutsu so powerful it is capable of disrupting the victim’s perception of time, to Obito’s Kamui which alters space-time itself allowing him to teleport things into a different dimension. These great powers have an even great drawback however, using them more than a couple of times a day completely drains the user’s chakra. Kakashi would pass out if he used his Mangekyo Sharingan more than 3 times in a day. Continued use also leads the user to blindness, no longer able to use the sharingan at all.、
Eternal Mangekyou Sharingan
Like its former variations it comes with a price. The ninja must receive a transplanted Mangekyo Sharingan from someone with close familial ties, ideally a sibling. This has lead to many among the Uchiha killing their own family members in order to obtain its powers. Achieving the Eternal Mangekyo Sharingan not only cures any blindness caused by overuse it also negates most negative sides effects and makes the originals abilities stronger. Transplanting a Mangekyo merges the design of the transplanter and transplantee’s eye into the Eternal Mangekyo.
Final Evolution: Rinnegan
The Rinnegan is the final evolution of the sharingan, and can only be awakened by gaining the Sage of the Six Paths chakra. This is done by either the Sage giving it directly or reproducing it by combining the chakra of his two sons Indra and Asura. Given how much is required to achieve this final transformation only two Uchiha, Sasuke and Madara, have been able to unlock the Rinnegan. With it the user can use all the Sage of the Six Paths abilities and all five changes in chakra nature. Each individual user also gets access to his own individual Rinnegan abilites such as Sasuke’s ability to switch places with any object within his range or Madara’s ability to create invisible shadows.
● Itachi’s Mangekyo Sharingan
With his left Mangekyō he can use Tsukuyomi, an extremely powerful genjutsu that allows him to distort the victim’s perception of time.
And With his right Mangekyō he can use Amaterasu, creating inextinguishable black flames.
Because he has both of his Mangekyō abilities, he can use Susanoo.
● Sasuke’s Mangekyo sharingan
With his left Mangekyou he can cast Amaterasu.
With his right Mangekyou he can shape the flames or extinguish them.
He also tends to use genjutsu with his right Mangekyou.
Because he has both of his Mangekyo abilities, he can use Susanoo.
● Obito / Kakashi Mangekyo Sharingan
Obito’s Mangekyou sharingan is able to use close-range Kamui, allowing the user to teleport themselves or those they’re in contact with to Kamui’s dimension.
Kakashi’s Mangekyou sharingan is able to use long-range Kamui, allowing the user to create a barrier around a target that teleports them to Kamui’s dimension, though this requires precise aim.
● Madara’s Mangekyou sharingan
Madara’s mangekyou sharingan power haven’t been revealed. One of the revealed ability is the power to control the Kyuub
The usage of the eyes lead Madara to lose his vision.
It’s not known what the individual abilities of each of his eyes but he became one of the strongest shinobi to ever live.
● Shisui’s Mangekyo Sharingan
With each of his eyes he could use Kotoamatsukami, a powerful genjutsu that allowed him to manipulate an opponent’s thoughts completely without them having the slightest idea that they were being controlled.
● Izuna’s Mangekyo Sharingan
Awakened his Mangekyō Sharingan shortly after Madara did.
Powers haven’t been revealed.
● Rai’s Mangekyo Sharingan
He could use one of its most forbidden techniques Izanagi. He was so adept in using the powerful technique, he was also able to affect an entire battlefield with it.
● Baru’s Mangekyo Sharingan
He along with rai izanami was able to use the Uchiha clan’s Izanagi technique.
● Naori’s Mangekyo Sharingan
She was also able to use one of the clan’s kinjutsu: Izanami which traps the target in an endlessly-looped genjutsu with no hope of escaping unless they accept themselves.
● Naka’s Mangekyo Sharingan
Hia sharingan granted him the ability to use the technique Izanagi, which he apparently used obsessively with such skills that he could survive combat against several other Uchiha.
● Madara’s Eternal Mangekyo Sharingan
He could use multiple forms of Sasano.
He could also use his Sasano to shape it around tailed beasts to strengthen.
● Sasuke Eternal Mangekyo Sharingan
Gave Sasuke an even higher capability of reading his opponents movements and to fluidly act upon.
He could also use a new form of Sasano.
● Madara’s rinnegan
With the rinnegan, Madara could use all of the abilities of the six paths technique.
● Sasuke’s rinnegan
Sasuke gained the ability to touch Madara’s Chakra disruption blades without suffering their after effects.
He is also able to see invisible targets.
And he gained the ability to transport himself or any target near him within limited range.